|Definition of Ethics
“Ethics is the science of judging specifically human ends and the
of means to those ends…it studies the impact of acts on the good of the
individual, the firm, the business community, and society as a whole.”
|The Composition of Ethics
- An ethic is composed of two elements:
- the ideological (what we believe - our values and
- the operational (what we do - our actions and
- we are in ethical consonance (harmony) when our beliefs are
with our actions
|Three Principles of Ethics
- The Utilitarian Principle
The Principle of Rights
- what action provides the greatest amount of good for the
The Principle of Justice
- human beings have certain moral entitlements that must be
- 2 criteria for judging action: 1.
universality and 2.
- benefits and burdens are equitably distributed
- equal treatment; consistent administration of rules;
- 3 categories of justice: distributive, retributive,
There are 2 major traditions for evaluating ethics:
- focuses on the welfare of the individual
- emphasizes means and intentions for justifying an act
- thinking focuses on the rights principle and the justice
- also called the rights or entitlement model
- focuses on the welfare of society
- evaluates the consequences of the act rather than the
- uses the utilitarian principle
- social benefit must be greater than the social cost
|Five Step Test for Ethics
Does the decision hurt anyone?
- Is the decision legal?
- Is the decision fair?
Have I been honest with those affected?
- the utilitarian principle
Can I live with my decision?
- the principle of rights
- honesty is the cornerstone of ethics
|12 Questions for Examining the Ethics of a
the Sermon” by Laura Nash
- Have you defined the problem accurately?
- How would you define the problem if you were on the other
side of the
- How did this situation occur in the first place?
- Where is your loyalty?
- What is your intention?
- How does this intention compare with the probable results?
- Whom could be injured?
- Can you discuss the situation with the affected parties
before you make
- Are you confident your position will be valid over the
- Could you discuss your decision with society as a whole
- What is the symbolic potential of your action?
- Under what conditions would you allow exceptions?
|The Obstacles to Ethics
- Unreliable Information
|Hospitality Industry Naturally Presents
- business's odd hours
- unpredictable events (interaction with customers)
- tempting opportunities
- mixture of cultures
- high turn-over rate
- high use of part-time employees
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this page is maintained by Reed
last updated January 15, 2011